Sunday, March 29, 2020

The dramatic energy Essay Example For Students

The dramatic energy Essay If we now turn to idea of Englishness and how Leavis explored it, it is then interesting to see that two of the highly respected authors are not English. Conrad as mentioned before was Polish and James an American. It gives one the impression that the English language is something that is aspired to, as Leavis says that, Conrads themes and interests demanded the concreteness and action the dramatic energy of English. 7 Likewise, the idea of Englishness suggests a certain degree of superiority (at least, in comparison to European writing), and that the English language symbolises morality and certain decorum that is very difficult to find anywhere else. In consequence, literature can defined exclusively as an English phenomenon. Why then Leavis picked non-English authors? One could suggest that he simply did not have a wide enough selection of English authors that personify his ideals. We will write a custom essay on The dramatic energy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now It is as well crucial to look carefully at some authors who are disqualified by Leavis and do not belong to his implied definition of literature. One of the rejected one by the critic is Henry Fielding. Though he is interested in human topics, his concerns are simple and produce an effect of anything but monotony 8 according to Leavis. However, it should be mentioned that his novels provided the basis for Jane Austins studies and future development as an artist. That is why; Fielding narratives cannot be entirely discredited. Another example would be Richardson; as for Leavis he is unable to present relations between ladies and gentlemen in a subtle way.9 Leavis compares Richardson with George Eliot, who is portraying characters and their relationship with great deal of erudition. Both of the writers, Fielding and Richardson, demonstrate restrictions in their works and this being so do not conform to the implicated definition of literature set by Leavis. Moreover, such authors as Daniel Defoe and Charles Dickens did not manage to find a place in Leaviss hall of literary fame.  Furthermore, one can notice that another example of an authors work with early success, which however in the end followed the wrong direction, are the works of D. H. Lawrence. Leavis made it clear that such work of D. H. Lawrence can be compared to that of George Eliot as Lawrence, in his work is to be known for his approach to experience and characters creation within his novels, similarly to George Eliot. Nonetheless, Leavis claims Lawrences enthusiasm for the subject matter produces an impression of the novel being written in a rush. Leavis claims that some of his novels are not sufficiently building into a whole.10, such as Women in Love and Rainbow. Whether my points are true or not, it is fair to say they are examples of the critics idea of literature which represents particular form of it, still showing his personal elaborate explanations of his definition of literature. In addition to the previous paragraph, we can see that F. R. Leavis has put together a highly selective, distinctive method of putting literature into categories. Works of authors such as Jane Austen, George Eliot, Henry James and Joseph Conrad, Leavis would classify as classical examples of traditional literature. Novels by the above authors contain specific characteristics of what Leavis describes and defines as a literature. These characteristics are: authors interest in life, distinctive form as well as style, a particular depiction of moral issues and the idea of Englishness. Chris Baldwick conveys the reasons behind Leavis categorisation, the major point being that literature has a certain moral function within society. Furthermore, to remember past experience with the use of the portrayal of life, to preserve culture, and to maintain the language within. 11 .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 , .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 .postImageUrl , .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 , .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13:hover , .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13:visited , .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13:active { border:0!important; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13:active , .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13 .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub567e228488ce4307c6a8038214b5e13:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Macbeth, tragedy by William Shakespeare EssayOverall The Great Tradition celebrates English language and certainly encourages the reader to take pride in English Literature, but on the other hand one could say that it unfairly excludes the wide range of world literature that have plenty to offer. One thing is for certain, whether or not one agrees with Leavis, his influence in defining what literature is continues to be held with great esteem. BIBLIOGRAPHY Baldick, Christoher. The Leavises: Armed Against the Herd, The Social Mission of  English Criticism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.  Eagleton, Terry. The Rise of English, Literary Theory: An Introduction. Oxford:  Blackwell, 1983.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

End of the Vietnam War - Fall of Saigon

End of the Vietnam War - Fall of Saigon Previous Page | Vietnam War 101 Working for Peace With the failure of the 1972 Easter Offensive, North Vietnamese leader Le Duc Tho became concerned that his nation could become isolated if President Richard Nixons policy of dà ©tente softened relations between the United States and his allies, the Soviet Union and China.  As such he relaxed the Norths position in the ongoing peace negotiations and stated that the South Vietnamese government could remain in power as the two sides sought a permanent solution.  Responding to this change,  Nixon’s National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, commenced secret talks with Tho in October.  Ã‚   After ten days, these proved successful and a draft peace document was produced.  Angered at having been excluded from the talks, South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu demanded major alterations to the document and spoke out against the proposed peace.  In response, the North Vietnamese published the details of the agreement and stalled the negotiations. Feeling that Hanoi had attempted to embarrass him and to force them back the table, Nixon ordered the bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong in late December 1972 (Operation Linebacker II). On January 15, 1973, after pressuring South Vietnam to accept the peace deal, Nixon announced the end of offensive operations against North Vietnam. Paris Peace Accords The Paris Peace Accords ending the conflict were signed January 27, 1973, and were followed by the withdrawal of the remaining American troops. The terms of the accords called for a complete ceasefire in South Vietnam, allowed North Vietnamese forces to retain the territory they had captured, released US prisoners of war, and called for both sides to find a political solution to the conflict. To achieve a lasting peace, the Saigon government and Vietcong were work towards a lasting settlement that would result in free and democratic elections in South Vietnam.  As an enticement to Thieu, Nixon offered US airpower to enforce the peace terms. Standing Alone, South Vietnam Falls With US forces gone from the country, South Vietnam stood alone. Though the Paris Peace Accords were in place, fighting continued and in January 1974 Thieu publicly stated that the agreement was no longer in effect. The situation worsened the following year with the fall of Richard Nixon due to Watergate and passage of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1974 by Congress which cut off all military aid to Saigon. This act removed the threat of air strikes should North Vietnam break the terms of the accords. Shortly after the act’s passage, North Vietnam began a limited offensive in Phuoc Long Province to test Saigon’s resolve. The province fell quickly and Hanoi pressed the attack. Surprised by the ease of their advance, against largely incompetent ARVN forces, the North Vietnamese stormed through the south, and threatened Saigon.  With the enemy nearing, President Gerald Ford ordered the evacuation of American personnel and embassy staff.  In addition, efforts were made to remove as many friendly South Vietnamese refugees as possible.  These missions were accomplished through Operations Babylift, New Life, and Frequent Wind in the weeks and days before the city fell.  Advancing quickly, North Vietnamese troops finally captured Saigon on April 30, 1975. South Vietnam surrendered the same day. After thirty years of conflict, Ho Chi Minh’s vision of a united, communist Vietnam had been realized. Casualties of the Vietnam War During the Vietnam War, the United States suffered 58,119 killed, 153,303 wounded, and 1,948 missing in action. Casualty figures for the Republic of Vietnam are estimated at 230,000 killed and 1,169,763 wounded. Combined the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong suffered approximately 1,100,000 killed in action and an unknown number of wounded. It is estimated that between 2 to 4 million Vietnamese civilians were killed during the conflict. Previous Page | Vietnam War 101

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Governance and Risk in Finance, Term Project 1 Essay

Governance and Risk in Finance, Term Project 1 - Essay Example The macro risk factors can be political, economical, social and technological factors called PEST analysis. The macro economic variables generating macro risks are price indexes, exchange rates, commodity prices, variables of monetary policy etc. However, there are certain credit rating agencies who give credit rating to institutions from excellent to poor like A.M.Best, Dun & Bradstreet, Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s, and Fitch Ratings. The Standard & Poor gives rating scale ranging from AAA to BBB to CCC to D. Rating lower than BBB- is considered as junk or speculative bond. Sound corporate governance enables organizations to control risk beforehand. Hostile takeovers are often seen as from governance point of view as the threat of takeover is believed to exert pressure on managers to act protecting the interest of shareholders. Content Corporate governance can be referred to as the structure and processes through which the affairs and business of an institution are mana ged and directed in order to improve the shareholder value over long term through enhancement of accountability and corporate performance considering the interest of other stakeholders. Risk management is referred to as the assessment, identification and risk prioritisation. It refers to as the effect of uncertainty on objectives. Governance and risk in finance are closely related concerns. In fact, governance, risk and compliance (GRC) are integrated in terms of avoiding conflict and gaps within an organisation. It is interpreted in various organizations in different manner. It encompasses activities of corporate governance, corporate compliance with laws and regulations applicable and enterpriser risk management (ERM). Introduction Corporate governance does not provide any single, accepted definition. It implies the way in which a company can be managed to ensure all of its stakeholders so that they can get their fair share from the earnings of the business or from the firmâ€℠¢s assets. It provides the system of directing and controlling the companies. In present days, corporate governance not only encompasses the interest of shareholders but also many stakeholders. The reason underlying this fact is that interest of shareholders can only be satisfied by taking into account the interest of stakeholders as companies accountable to all of their stakeholders are more successful and prosperous over the long term. So, corporate governance rests on the perception of maximising value creation by companies over long term by discharging the accountability to all of their stakeholders and by optimizing the system of corporate governance. It is also based on the economic concept of maximising market value that underpaid shareholder capitalism as it frames rule to conduct business in accordance with the desires of shareholders and owner, requiring to make money as much as possible confirming to the basic rules of society as embodied in local customs and law. There a re challenges in modern society to deal with risk appropriately and effectively manage it. International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) has given certain governance mechanisms to effectively deal with risks. Implementing such governance mechan

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Enlightenment Philosophers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Enlightenment Philosophers - Essay Example The French Revolution happens to be the characterization of transformation, and numerous influences which caused the Revolution involve the contemporary world. In accordance with Voltaire, the famous vice of the democratic system is surely not dictatorship and brutality, quite the opposite in line with Montesquieu, "to implement those powers, where of performing laws. That of implementing the public resolutions, also that of attempting the suits of human beings, this seems to be opposing in compliance towards Rousseau, man happens to be born liberated; and in all places he is inside chains. Even though, Montesquieu, Rousseau and Voltaire all contains conflicting views regarding the politics inside France, their viewpoints were all heading for a similar intention, the conclusion of feudalism. Rousseau's authority on his supporters and Montesquieu's scheme of division of authority all encouraged the revolutions for the reason that they protested towards a government who contravened on the people's privilege and independence and prearrange the foundation for contemporary democracy. Rousseau made use of his ideas to manipulate extremists and helped ignite the commencement of the French Revolution. Each of their natural privileges had been removed.

Monday, January 27, 2020

A case study of tesco plc

A case study of tesco plc Relationship marketing is high-touch, person-to-person communication. And it is the most powerful and time-consuming marketing technique. The philosophy or foundation of relationship marketing is the belief that strengthening ties with existing clients heightens customer satisfaction heightens our abilities to serve clients. (Claycomb; 2001) it can be seen that the customer market is increasingly gaining greater importance and thus there is the need to focus on building or fostering relationships (Lindgren; 2005). Customer loyalty, as we conceptualize it, focuses on a customers repeat purchase behaviour that is triggered by a marketers activities. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify the positive relationship between relationship marketing and consumer buying behavior which helps the firm in strengthening its profitability. Also, an important part is to establish the different ways by which relationship marketing can be implemented in the supermarket industry in order to increase its market share. The main theme is to understand the concept of relationship marketing and influence it in a way that the purchasing decision of consumers can be influenced. Evolving out of, and contradictory to, early definitions that were solely behavioural, customer loyalty today is usually viewed as comprising both behavioural and attitudinal components (Day 1969; Jacoby and Kyner 1973). Loyalty is a primary goal of relationship marketing and sometimes even equated with the relationship marketing concept itself (Sheth 1996). The connection between loyalty and profitability has been the focus of both theoretical and empirical studies (Oliver 1999; Payne and Rickard 1997; Reichheld and Sasser 1990). Customer loyalty is also reported to contribute to increased revenues along the relationship life cycle because of cross-selling activities and increased customer penetration rates (e.g. Dwyer and Schurr 1987). Positive word-of-mouth communication, defined as all informal communications between a customer and others concerning evaluations of goods or services, includes relating pleasant, vivid, or novel experiences; recommendations to others; and even conspicuous display (Anderson 1998; p 6). Largely because personal communication is viewed as a more reliable source than non personal information (e.g., Gremler and Brown 1994; Zeithaml and Bitner 1996), word-of-mouth communication is a powerful force in influencing future buying decisions, particularly when the service delivered is of high risk for the customer (e.g., Sheth, Mittal, and Newman 1999). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The main aims and objectives of this study is: To examine the structure and various dimensions of a customers psychological attachment towards a firm. To investigate into the various dimensions of relationship marketing and their impact on direct consumer buying behavior. To analyze the various methods of relationship marketing adopted by Tesco plc and how it affects its consumers buying behavior. To recommend some practicable ways in which relationship marketing can be implemented. RESEARCH QUESTIONS What are the main areas of relationship marketing that Tesco concentrates on and how it affects the profitability of the company? What are the various ways of strengthening relationship marketing in order to improve consumer buying behavior? Do the key variables such as trust, satisfaction, commitment and relationship building affect the consumer buying behavior directly? BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Tesco plc is the UKs largest retailer in terms of both sales and market share, and the third largest global retailer in terms of both sales and revenue. With operating income of  £3.1bn in 2009, the company has embarked upon a major expansion phase in the past decade, and as of December 2009 has more than 2,300 stores across the UK (including Tesco Metro, Superstores, Express and Extra branches), more than any other supermarket. The company has branched out into an extremely wide range of area and has also set up its own distribution network as part of a drive towards greater vertical integration within the company. As an extension of the Relationship Marketing approach, many companies have introduced loyalty schemes. Initially, such schemes simply offered discounts for regular customers. However, companies such as Tesco have rolled loyalty schemes out to other areas. Tescos Clubcard scheme, for example, can be used in a number of different environments and also provides valuable information for the company, which it can use to assess the specifics of a customers shopping habits and target that customers habits in a very specific manner. LITERATURE REVIEW Relationship Marketing: There are numerous definitions of relationship marketing and interested readers are directed toward Harker (1998) for a thorough review. Some of those most commonly used are the definitions offered by particularly influential authors, which are outlined below: Marketing is the process of identifying and establishing, maintaining, enhancing and when necessary terminating relationships with customers and other stakeholders, at a profit, so that the objectives of all parties involved are met, where this is done by a mutual giving and fulfilment of promises. (Gronroos, 1997, p. 407) All marketing efforts directed towards establishing, developing and maintaining successful relational exchanges. (Morgan and Hunt, 1994, p. 23) Relationship marketing is about understanding, creating, and managing exchange relationships between economic partners; manufacturers, service providers, various channel members, and final consumers. (Moller and Wilson, 1995, p. 1) Marketing is mainly seen as relationships, networks and interaction. (Gummesson, 1994, p. 12) However, one of the most frequently cited definitions is that of Grà ¶nroos who states that (the purpose of) marketing is to identify and establish, maintain and enhance, and when necessary terminate relationships with customers (and other parties) so that objectives regarding economic and other variables of all parties are met. This is achieved through a mutual exchange and fulfillment of promises (Grà ¶nroos, 2007, 22). Forms of relationship marketing: This definition reflects the expansion of RMs domain to include all the complex networks of relationships that are established in the market among companies and their customers, suppliers, competitors and other stakeholders. By analyzing the practices in the business environment Gummesson (2008) identifies no less than 30 relationships of this kind and groups them in the following categories such as Classic market relationships where aspects such as the supplier-customer dyad and the supplier-customer-competitor triad or the physical distribution network are included. Special market relationships: the relationships via full-time marketers and part-time marketers, the relationship to the unsatisfied customer, the e-relationship, the Para-social relationships and many more are discussed here;Mega relationships: these exist above the market level and provide a platform for market relationships (those from the previous two categories). They concern the mega marketing (lobbying, public opinion and political power), the mega alliances (e.g. NAFTA) and the social relationships (such as friendship and ethnic bonds); Nano relationships: these exist below the market level, inside the organizations, and have an impact on external relationships. All these elements add up and contribute to Gummessons [2008, 5] definition: relationship marketing is interaction in networks of relationships. There are several other broad approaches. One of them is the six markets model developed by Christopher, Payne and Ballantyne as an instrument for helping managers identify strategically important stakeholders. The Customer Markets are placed in the centre of this model to emphasize the idea that organizations can only optimize relationships with customers if they understand and manage relationships with other relevant stakeholders (Payne et al., 2005, 859). The other five markets, described below, have a supporting role: Referral markets (satisfied customers that become advocates of the company and recommend it to other potential customers); Influence markets (unions, business press, regulatory bodies, financial analysts, competitors, the government, consumer groups etc.); Recruitment markets (potential employees and the channels used to access them; Supplier and alliance markets (suppliers that the company has partnership relationships with, and other organizations with which the company shares capabilities and knowledge); Internal markets (the organization and its employees). Similarly, Morgan and Hunt [1994] note the existence of 10 exchange relationships that can be established in the context of four partnership types: buyer, supplier, lateral and internal partnerships. Kotler (1992) presents, although from a transactional perspective, the 10 critical players from a companys environment: suppliers, distributors, end-users and employees (in the immediate environment), and financial firms, governments, media, allies, competitors and the generic public (in the macro-environment). Customer relationship marketing: The last broad approach that we make reference to is the Contemporary Marketing Practices Framework. This will be further detailed in the next paragraph of the paper. This continuing debate over the breadth of RMs domain is compared by Payne (2000) with the one generated by Kotler and Levys article Broadening the Concept of Marketing, published in 1969. The two authors advocated the idea of using marketing in non commercial activities which ultimately led to the development of new fields such as social, educational and even church marketing (Kotler, 2005). But not everyone agreed initially; in his article Broadening the Concept of Marketing Too Far Luck expressed concerns that this proposal, although intriguing and imaginative may lead to confusion regarding the essential nature of marketing (Luck 1969; 53). Payne (2000) believes that the first step in settling the current RM debate is agreeing on a common terminology to distinguish between the broad and the narrow approaches. He suggests using the term customer relationship marketing for the supplier-customer dyad and leaving relationship marketing as a term for the more general perspective. In time, one of the two might become dominant. Egan (2008) considers that the narrow standpoint will prevail as it is, to a certain degree, measurable and it sustains the functionalist marketing approach. Research Paradigm Research is defined as systematic approach towards problem solving and phenomenon description. The research paradigms focus on the gathering, processing, interpretation and analyzing the data. According to McNabb (2002) research is process of interlinking from data collection to data analysis. The various researchers to understand the worldview have used research as process. Interpretivism: Interpretivist paradigm would be used in our research to find out the impact of relationship marketing on consumer buying behaviors. It is characterized by seeing the social world from a highly subjective viewpoint. It places the emphasis of explanation in the subjective consciousness of the social participants instead of the objective observer (Burrell Morgan, 1979). Under interpretivism, general rules and external structures of society do not exist and the aim of research is to investigate the meanings and interpretations of actors in specific situations. Because of the highly subjective nature of the interpretive research, studies tend to be small in scale and emphasis is placed on the validity and insight of the research, rather than simply the outcomes or results. Positivism: Positivism can be defined as the scientific research where numerical and statistical data and figures are used. It is mainly used for conducting quantitative research. In this research, I use interpretivism because this research study is mainly conducted on the basis of theoretical concept. Research methodology Quantitative research method would be used in the research which is a type of scientific research where numerical and statistical things are used. In general terms, scientific research consists of an investigation that seeks answers to a question, Systematically uses a predefined set of procedures to answer the question, collects evidence, produces findings that were not determined in advance and produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the study. Grounded theory will be applied in this research (TESCO) to analyze the data collected through research process. As an analysis process grounded theory was developed to build an explanation  or to generate a theory around the core or central theme that emerges from researcher  data. GROUNDED THEORY: It is one kind of systematic methodology of qualitative research in relation to the social science where importance is given towards the theory generation from the data collected by the researcher at the research conducting process. Thematic Analysis: Thematic analysis is a search for themes that emerge as being important to the description of the phenomenon (Daly, Kellehear, Gliksman, 1997).The process involves the identification of themes through careful reading and re-reading of the data (Rice Ezzy, 1999, p. 258). It is a form of pattern recognition within the data, where emerging themes become the categories for analysis. The method of analysis chosen for this study is a hybrid approach of qualitative methods of thematic analysis, and it incorporates both the data-driven inductive approach of Boyatzis (1998) and the deductive template of codes approach outlined by Crabtree and Miller (1999). This approach complements the research questions by allowing the tenets of social phenomenology to be integral to the process of deductive thematic analysis while allowing for themes to emerge direct from the data using inductive coding. RESEARCH METHOD: Primary Data Data is most critical to the whole research, as qualified and relevant data would bring the best results. There are two types to acquire data one is primary source and the other is secondary source. The primary source of collecting data is carried through interviews, surveys, questionnaires etc. The data is directly acquired from the research object to get undiluted and authentic data. In general data could be facts, figures or any other forms of information upon which observation is made. Data are facts, figures, enumerations and other material, which forms the basis  for the research. Research strategy: For my research I would be surveying the employees and conducting semi-structured interview with Tesco. The survey would mainly focus on the relationship marketing aspects and how this could be used as a tool to convince the purchasing decision of the customers. Apart from survey the semi-structured interview would either be telephone based or face-to-face interview. In my research the use of secondary data is limited and would only be used in the form of published reports from organizations such as Mckinsey. Questionnaire survey and Semi-structured interview: ( DISCUSS EACH UNDER ITS OWN HEADING) Survey method: A questionnaire is basic set of questions or statements focused on the research topic with large amount of respondents. A questionnaire is normally used when large number of responses is to be recorded. Questionnaires are  certainly the most often employed data collection devices in statistical work. The most well known type of questionnaire is censuses, which is normally used in conjunction with qualitative approach. The method applies set of questions to large number of people (respondents). Semi structured interview: The semi structured interviews are one to one communication with the concerned respondents relating to the research. The questions are framed to analyze the research questions without directly letting the respondent know what the researcher is trying to extract from the questions being asked to the respondents. Both these forms of data collection instruments would be used to analyze the data where the questionnaires would be used for the customers and the interviews would be used to analyze the companys point of view. Ethical Issues There are a number of key phrases that describe the system of ethical protections that the contemporary research establishment have created to try to protect better the rights of their research participants. Voluntary, participation informed consent, risk of harm confidentiality and anonymity right to service. CONCLUSION Relationship marketing involves the use of one-on-one communication to earn the loyalty of your target audience. This not only helps in retaining the customers but also in attracting new customers. Today, the market has mostly become a buyers market rather than a sellers market and hence, sellers have to try their level best to maintain and attract customers towards their business. This is mainly because the competition in the market is too high and no sellers are in a position to create a demand for them but the only tool they have is marketing, through which they can attract the customers but affecting their purchasing decisions is far beyond their control. While personal marketing helps you to get your message across in a way that will be better received, relationship marketing helps you to strengthen your relationship with your target audience. The research on Tesco would give much enhanced response about the best practises of relationship marketing as it is the leading supermark et of UK and their sales and profit are largely based on their customer relations which influences their long term relationship positively thereby affecting their buying behaviour. This research is basically to analyze and evaluate the practises of relationship marketing and there might be interesting dimensions in the field which the research can invent. Expected time allocation for the dissertation: Task Week Duration 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Introduction Literature review Methodology Data analysis Conclude the findings and analyzing the results Drafting the research report Audit and review Final submission of the dissertation

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Customer Perception Towards Branded Carbonated Drinks

STUDY OF CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS BRANDED CARBONATED DRINKS Submitted by : Hari Baboo CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Beverage Industry in India: A Brief Insight In India, beverages form an important part of the lives of people. It is an industry, in which the players constantly innovate, in order to come up with better products to gain more consumers and satisfy the existing consumers. FIGURE 1: BEVERAGE INDUSTRY IN INDIA The beverage industry is vast and there various ways of segmenting it, so as to cater the right product to the right person. The different ways of segmenting it are as follows: * Alcoholic, non-alcoholic and sports beverages * Natural and Synthetic beverages * In-home consumption and out of home on premises consumption. * Age wise segmentation i. e. beverages for kids, for adults and for senior citizens * Segmentation based on the amount of consumption i. e. high levels of consumption and low levels of consumption. If the behavioral patterns of consumers in India are closely noticed, it could be observed that consumers perceive beverages in two different ways i. e. everages are a luxury and that beverages have to be consumed occasionally. These two perceptions are the biggest challenges faced by the beverage industry. In order to leverage the beverage industry, it is important to address this issue so as to encourage regular consumption as well as and to make the industry more affordable. Four strong strategic elements to increase consumption of the products of the beverage industry in India are: * The qua lity and the consistency of beverages needs to be enhanced so that consumers are satisfied and they enjoy consuming beverages. The credibility and trust needs to be built so that there is a very strong and safe feeling that the consumers have while consuming the beverages. * Consumer education is a must to bring out benefits of beverage consumption whether in terms of health, taste, relaxation, stimulation, refreshment, well-being or prestige relevant to the category. * Communication should be relevant and trendy so that consumers are able to find an appeal to go out, purchase and consume. The beverage market has still to achieve greater penetration and also a wider spread of distribution. It is important to look at the entire beverage market, as a big opportunity, for brand and sales growth in turn to add up to the overall growth of the food and beverage industry in the economy. The Carbonated Drinks Industry In India; A Perspective The Rs. 17000 crore market of carbonated drinks industry in India looked really bad just after the â€Å"Pesticide† controversy last year. But some cool promotions and quick reactions by cola companies have handled the crisis satisfactorily. The controversy has thought the industry few lesson or so and in the process consumer and the economy also benefited. â€Å"Colas, contributing more than 50 per cent to fizzy drink sales, saw a huge slide after the pesticide controversy, but are believed to be making a come back. Thanks to increased advertisement spends which is over 20 per cent higher than last year. There is some good news on the non-cola segment. The lime and lemon segments with brands like sprite and 7up have registered a 30 to 40 per cent growth, although on a smaller base. Nevertheless, the battle between two cola giants, Coke & Pepsi, did not go any slow. Rather it has become fiercer. They are now fighting each other even at the local level. That too the trend is as old as start of this millennium. The present scenario of the carbonated drinks market is behaving the way it has all to do with a duopoly situation. A duopoly is a competitive situation where there are two competitors, normally of roughly equal si ze. Although in every place they have local competitors and there is a huge unorganized flavoured water market. Yet again, packaged water is also a competitor to the cola brands and in this category neither of the two cola companies are market leaders. However, as far as the carbonated drinks are concerned there are only two brands, Coke and Pepsi. Therefore, we can safely say that this condition does qualify to be a near duopoly situation and thus there is such intense competition. Unless, the two parties in a duopoly collaborate with each other, which is certainly not the case in the cola market worldwide or in India, this battle is not going to slow down even a bit! Rather, it would grow stronger with every passing day. In a situation like this it is very interesting to observe marketing strategies in general and Product & Pricing strategies in specific of the players, merely because the action of one player is bound to invite similar reaction from the other. As if, the third law of Newton, that ? every action has an equal and opposite reaction? , can‘t fit better in any other situation! In a duopoly like situation, as far as cola industry in India is concerned, it can be said that it is foolish to cut prices unless, one of the two parties has a much lower cost base. But that is not the case in India. In fact, both the companies, Coke and Pepsi, invest heavily in advertising and in distribution through their franchise as well as their own systems. However, a great deal of attention is paid by both companies to cost, particularly in the development of a tightly effective supply chain system in which economies are squeezed out and, wherever possible both overheads and working capital are controlled. Therefore, it is extremely difficult to for both the parties to play with the prices. Rather, it is counter-productive exercise, as when prices are reduced in a particular area by one of the cola brands, the second must follow. If we look into the history of pricing of these two particular players of the carbonated drinks industry, we will see that the first major initiative in the price front took place some years ago when the brand Coca-Cola came back to India. At that point of time colas were available only in 200 ml bottles. Coca-Cola, in it‘s come back trail, broke the tradition by launching Cola in the 300 ml size bottles but at the same price as Pepsi, which was then in a 200 ml bottle. With this strategy, Coke expected to gain advantage in the market especially in India, which is traditionally a highly price sensitive market. However, Pepsi, as being a fierce competitor was prepared for it and soon launched its colas in the 300 ml sizes. Thereby, in India, it was the 300 ml bottle which became the standard in most parts of the country, making the price a parity issue between the two brands. Then, a few years ago, one litre and 1. 5 litre non-returnable PET bottles at a discount in comparison to, a 300 ml returnable glass bottle, the traditional packaging in this product category, was launched by Pepsi. It was a successful move resulting in significant increase in the consumption level especially amongst the loyal consumers in the urban areas. And part of the rule of the game, Coke followed Pepsi in the above move in order to reduce the cost per glass to the consumer. Then came the days of a 500 ml non-returnable PET bottle which was advertised almost totally on the cost of the consumer per 100 ml of cola! Nevertheless, the great advantage that the PET bottles provided is that they have increased home consumption level which was not of much significance compared to out of home consumption till then. And in very recent times the Coke did a u-turn that is price cuts. The latest move of reducing price to the consumer is the very opposite of what has been happening to-date. It has now re-launched a 200 ml bottle at a unit price of approximately 2/3rd of the 300 ml price, thus making retail purchase look cheaper. This strategy was meant to fight consumption pattern of smaller towns and rural areas where two people share a 300 ml bottle. Importantly, by making the bottle smaller it has only reduced unit price without affecting the trade margin. It has been reported that Pepsi has been cutting the price of its 300 ml bottle in some places, until an inventory of 200 ml bottles was built, as an answer to the Coke‘s strike. However, this act of Pepsi might boomerang as there is a strong probability of having some negative effect on the supply chain and other inventory cost in the long run. Competitive Arena The soft drink market all over the world has been witnessing a neck to neck battle between the two major players, Coca-Cola and Pepsi since the very beginning. The thirst quenchers are trying hard to have the major chunk of the pie of carbonated soft drink market. Both the players are spending their energies in building capacity, infrastructure, promotional activities etc. Coca-Cola being 11 years older than Pepsi has dominated the scene in most of the soft drink markets in the world and enjoying leadership in terms of market share. But the Coca-Cola people are finding it hard to keep away Pepsi, which has been narrowing the gaps regularly. The two are posing threats to each other in every nook and corner of the world. While Coca-Cola has been earning most of its bread and butter through beverage sales, Pepsi has a multi products portfolio with some portion from the same business. Aims/Objective In this research we are making an attempt to study which carbonated drink is preferred by consumers around Manipal, and do they take into account factors such as price, brand, taste etc while purchasing a carbonated drink. * Consumer perception towards Carbonated drinks. * To understand buying behavior of consumers. * To recommend for future course of action. CHAPTER 2:RESEARCH DESIGN Research Design: Descriptive research- also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how. COLLECTION OF DATA 1. Primary data : Based on questionnaire, will be distributed among consumers & direct interview will be taken, to collect the data. 2. Secondary data : Collected from articles, magazines, newspaper research reports and internet. 3. Sampling: Stratified sampling technique will be considered. A sample size of 200 consumers will be selected from Manipal to study. The process of grouping members of the population into relatively homogeneous subgroups before sampling. Proportionate allocation uses a sampling fraction in each of the strata that is proportional to that of the total population. If the population consists of 60% in the male stratum and 40% in the female stratum, then the relative size of the two samples (three males, two females) should reflect this proportion. SAMPLE SIZE This refers to the number of element to be selected from the universe to contribute a sample. The sample should be optimum i. e. it should fulfill all the requirement of efficiency, respectiveness, reliability and flexibility pertaining to the research conducted. It is generally denoted by ‘n’. It can be calculated using the formula:- n = z / e? in case of Infinite population. Where, n=sample size ?=Standard deviation e=error Many a times, the standard deviation of population is not known and sample is not yet taken, rough estimate of the population will given by, Range of Population Distribution 6 Here range is the difference between highest and lowest score. In this case, range = 5-1 =4 Therefore standard deviation, For 95% confidence level, from normal distribution table, z=1. 96 Error, e=0. 1 Substituting these values in the above equation , we get, n= (1. 96 0. 67? )/(0. 1? ) Sample size, n=172. 44 Taking sample size as 200. Random sampling is undertaken for selecting sample from the population SAMPLING ERROR: In any study involving the sampling process, there would normally be a certain amount of inaccuracy in the data collected. This inaccuracy is termed as ‘Sampling Error’. In other words, sampling errors are those errors which arise on account of sampling. Limitations of the Study 1. Some of the respondents refused to fill the questionnaires. 2. The responses may vary as some people did not want to come up with real answers. 3. The people were busy in their own work so they might not have given actual responses. . Limitation of time. 5. The survey is conducted only in few areas of Manipal; hence the results may vary in other parts of the cities. 6. Small sample size. 7. And like any other research the limitation of personal bias of respondents limits the scope of the study. 8. The findings are based on the survey conducted in the month of feb; the results may vary in other months. CHAPTE R 3. DATA REPRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 3. 1 DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR Gender of respondents Frequency table: GENDER | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| male| 106| 53. | 53. 0| 53. 0| | female| 94| 47. 0| 47. 0| 100. 0| | Total| 200| 100. 0| 100. 0| | Inference The above pie chart depicts the distribution of the total sample that we had undertaken in our study. We observe here that most of the respondents are male than female. Male respondents are 106 out of 200 respondents whereas females are 94 out of 200. Age of respondents Frequency table AGE | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| 0-15| 68| 34. 0| 34. 0| 34. 0| | 16-25| 56| 28. 0| 28. 0| 62. 0| | 26-35| 44| 22. 0| 22. 0| 84. 0| | 36-45| 26| 13. | 13. 0| 97. 0| | 46-70| 6| 3. 0| 3. 0| 100. 0| | Total| 200| 100. 0| 100. 0| | As per respondents, age group of 0-15 people with the frequency of 68 out of 200, 16-25 group people are around 56 , 26-35 are 44 people , 36-45 are 26 people respec tively. 3. 2 PROFESSIONAL FACTOR Frequency table WORK| | | | | | | | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| professional| 26| 13| 13| 13| | | businessman| 18| 9| 9| 22| | | service| 52| 26| 26| 48| | | student| 98| 49| 49| 97| | | others| 6| 3| 3| 100| | | Total| 200| 100| 100| | | Inference As per respondents the student respondent are 98 out of200while service people were around 52 out of 200 ,professional people are around 26 ,businessman people are around 18 whereas 6 of them are in others category. 3. 3 CARBONATED DRINKS Frequency table COLA | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| coca cola| 36| 18. 0| 18. 0| 18. 0| | pepsi| 34| 17. 0| 17. 0| 35. 0| | thumbs up| 52| 26. 0| 26. 0| 61. 0| | 7up| 24| 12. 0| 12. 0| 73. 0| | sprite| 22| 11. 0| 11. 0| 84. 0| | mazza| 16| 8. 0| 8. 0| 92. 0| | fanta| 16| 8. 0| 8. 0| 100. 0| | Total| 200| 100. 0| 100. 0| | | | | | | | | | | | | As per respondents, 52 people out of 200 likes thumbs up, while people loves to drink coca cola , pepsi, 7up, mazza, fanta 36,34,24,22,16,16 respectively Gender vs. age GENDER * AGE Cross tabulation| | | | | | | | | AGE| | | | | Total| | | | 0-15| 16-25| 26-35| 36-45| 46-70| | GENDER| male| Count| 34| 30| 25| 14| 3| 106| | | Expected Count| 36. 04| 29. 68| 23. 32| 13. 78| 3. 18 | 106| | female| Count| 34| 26| 19| 12| 3| 94| | | Expected Count| 31. 96| 26. 32| 20. 68| 12. 22| 2. 82| 94| Total| | Count| 68| 56| 44| 26| 6| 200| | | Expected Count| 68| 56| 44| 26| 6| 200| | | | | | | | | From the respondents, in the age group of 0-15 have 34 males and females respondent respectively. While 16-25 age group have 30 males and 26 females’ respondent respectively. While 26-35 age group have 30 males and 26 females’ respondent respectively. Because they are major consumers of branded carbonated drinkers Gender vs. Occupation GENDER * WORK Cross tabulation| | | | | | | | | WORK| | | | | Total| | | | professional| businessman| service| student| others| | GENDER| male| Count| 20| 12| 23| 47| 4| 106| | | Expected Count| 13. 78| 9. 54| 27. 56| 51. 94| 3. 8| 106| | female| Count| 6| 6| 29| 51| 2| 94| | | Expected Count| 12. 22| 8. 46| 24. 44| 46. 06| 2. 82| 94| Total| | Count| 26| 18| 52| 98| 6| 200| | | Expected Count| 26| 18| 52| 98| 6| 200| As per respond ents, male generally who respondent are majorly students and in female also major respondent were student only. While service people are only 23 as male and 29 as female respondent, professional count is 20 in male and 6 at female. In businessman category 12 are male respondent while 6 of them are female. Gender vs. Prefer branded carbonated drinks GENDER * COLA Cross tabulation| | | | | | | | | | COLA| | | | | | | Total| | | | coca cola| pepsi| thumbs up| 7up| sprite| mazza| fanta| | GENDER| Male| Count| 21| 22| 31| 12| 8| 5| 7| 106| | | Expected Count| 19. 08| 18. 02| 27. 56| 12. 72| 11. 66| 8. 48| 8. 48| 106| | female| Count| 15| 12| 21| 12| 14| 11| 9| 94| | | Expected Count| 16. 92| 15. 98| 24. 44| 11. 28| 10. 34| 7. 52| 7. 52| 94| Total| | Count| 36| 34| 52| 24| 22| 16| 16| 200| | | Expected Count| 36| 34| 52| 24| 22| 16| 16| 200| As per respondent male person like thumbs up are around 31 persons while 21 and 22 people like coca cola and Pepsi respectively. In7up category 12 male respondent and in sprite, mazza, fanta 8,5,7 respectively are there. And in female person like thumbs up are around 21 persons while 15 and 12 people like coca cola and Pepsi respectively. In7up category 12 female respondent and in sprite, mazza, fanta 14,11,9 respectively are there. Gender vs. Effect of advertisement GENDER * ATTRACT Cross tabulation| | | | | | | | | ATTRACT| | | | | Total| | | | creativity| Effect of brand ambassador| idea| frequency| logical| | GENDER| male| Count| 29| 25| 14| 28| 10| 106| | | Expected Count| 25. 4| 26. 5| 11. 66| 26. 5| 15. 9| 106| | female| Count| 19| 25| 8| 22| 20| 94| | | Expected Count| 22. 56| 23. 5| 10. 34| 23. 5| 14. 1| 94| Total| | Count| 48| 50| 22| 50| 30| 200| | | Expected Count| 48| 50| 22| 50| 30| 200| As per respondents, advertisement is mode of marketing where frequency of ads, creativity and effect of brand ambassador for male respondent are 28,29and 25 respectively. While in female has effect of brand ambas sador, frequency of ads and logic of ads are 25, 22 and 19 respectively. Age vs. Preferred branded carbonated drinks AGE * COLA Cross tabulation| | | | | | | | | | | | COLA| | | | | | | Total| | | | coca cola| Pepsi| thumbs up| 7up| sprite| mazza| fanta| | AGE| 0-15| Count| 13| 12| 15| 13| 5| 5| 5| 68| | | Expected Count| 12. 24| 11. 56| 17. 68| 8. 16| 7. 48| 5. 44| 5. 44| 68| | 16-25| Count| 8| 11| 9| 8| 7| 7| 6| 56| | | Expected Count| 10. 08| 9. 52| 14. 56| 6. 72| 6. 16| 4. 48| 4. 48| 56| | 26-35| Count| 11| 7| 15| 2| 5| 1| 3| 44| | | Expected Count| 7. 92| 7. 48| 11. 44| 5. 28| 4. 84| 3. 52| 3. 52| 44| | 36-45| Count| 4| 3| 12| 0| 4| 2| 1| 26| | | Expected Count| 4. 8| 4. 42| 6. 76| 3. 12| 2. 86| 2. 08| 2. 08| 26| | 46-70| Count| 0| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| 6| | | Expected Count| 1. 08| 1. 02| 1. 56| 0. 72| 0. 66| 0. 48| 0. 48| 6| Total| | Count| 36| 34| 52| 24| 22| 16| 16| 200| | | Expected Count| 36| 34| 52| 24| 22| 16| 16| 200| As per respondents, 0-15 age group does show that much of variation and as same at other age groups. While the age group of 16-25 show much variation than 46-70 age group pe ople. Age vs. Reason of purchase AGE * LIKE Cross tabulation| | | | | | | | | | | LIKE| | | | | | | Total| | | brand name| taste| easy avail| packaging| price| Effect of brand ambassador| others| | AGE| 0-15| Count| 16| 16| 9| 10| 11| 6| 0| 68| | | Expected Count| 13. 6| 17| 10. 88| 6. 8| 13. 6| 5. 44| 0. 68| 68| | 16-25| Count| 9| 14| 9| 4| 15| 3| 2| 56| | | Expected Count| 11. 2| 14| 8. 96| 5. 6| 11. 2| 4. 48| 0. 56| 56| | 26-35| Count| 10| 8| 11| 2| 10| 3| 0| 44| | | Expected Count| 8. 8| 11| 7. 04| 4. 4| 8. 8| 3. 52| 0. 44| 44| | 36-45| Count| 5| 8| 2| 4| 4| 3| 0| 26| | | Expected Count| 5. 2| 6. 5| 4. 16| 2. 6| 5. 2| 2. 08| 0. 26| 26| | 46-70| Count| 0| 4| 1| 0| 0| 1| 0| 6| | Expected Count| 1. 2| 1. 5| 0. 96| 0. 6| 1. 2| 0. 48| 0. 06| 6| Total| | Count| 40| 50| 32| 20| 40| 16| 2| 200| | | Expected Count| 40| 50| 32| 20| 40| 16| 2| 200| As per respondent, 0-15 age groups reasons for purchases of branded carbonated drinks are basically on brand name and taste. While age group 16 -25 group people think price and brand name is the important factor in selection of drink. Other age group thinks taste as one of the factor and as well as brand name, prices are important factor. Null hypothesis: ho: Is taste dependent on the selection of branded carbonated drinks? The results are as shown below with the help of table and graphical representation. COLA * TASTE Cross tabulation | | TASTE| Total| | | very important| important| not important| not at all important| | COLA| coca cola| Count| 5| 19| 7| 5| 36| | | Expected Count| 8. 1| 17. 6| 7. 7| 2. 5| 36. 0| | Pepsi| Count| 15| 8| 9| 2| 34| | | Expected Count| 7. 7| 16. 7| 7. 3| 2. 4| 34. 0| | thumbs up| Count| 5| 33| 10| 4| 52| | | Expected Count| 11. 7| 25. 5| 11. 2| 3. 6| 52. 0| | 7up| Count| 9| 8| 6| 1| 24| | | Expected Count| 5. 4| 11. 8| 5. 2| 1. 7| 24. 0| | Sprite| Count| 5| 13| 4| 0| 22| | Expected Count| 5. 0| 10. 8| 4. 7| 1. 5| 22. 0| | Mazza| Count| 3| 8| 5| 0| 16| | | Expected Count| 3. 6| 7. 8| 3. 4| 1. 1| 16. 0| | Fanta| Count| 3| 9| 2| 2| 16| | | Expected Count| 3. 6| 7. 8| 3. 4| 1. 1| 16. 0| Total| Count| 45| 98| 43| 14| 200| | Expected Count| 45. 0| 98. 0| 43. 0| 14. 0| 200. 0| We can observe here that the respondents takes as taste as important in selection of carbonated drinks. A s taste is one of factor which influence in the selection of carbonated drinks Chi-Square Test | Value| df| Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)| Pearson Chi-Square| 31. 655(a)| 18| . 024| Likelihood Ratio| 33. 984| 18| . 013| N of Valid Cases| 200| | | a 13 cells (46. 4%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1. 12. INTERPRETATION: Since the calculated value 0. 024 is less than 0. 05, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude saying that the taste is dependent on the selection of carbonated drinks. Null hypothesis: ho: Are carbonated drinks only popular among the youth? AGE * COLA Cross tabulation Count | COLA| Total| | coca cola| pepsi| thumbs up| 7up| sprite| mazza| fanta| | AGE| 0-15| 13| 12| 15| 13| 5| 5| 5| 68| | 16-25| 8| 11| 9| 8| 7| 7| 6| 56| 26-35| 11| 7| 15| 2| 5| 1| 3| 44| | 36-45| 4| 3| 12| 0| 4| 2| 1| 26| | 46-70| 0| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| 6| Total| 36| 34| 52| 24| 22| 16| 16| 200| As per respondents, age group 0-15 are 68 respondent where they like coca cola, Pepsi, thumbs up,7up 13,12,15,13 respectively. Age group 16-25 are 56 respondent where they like coca cola, Pepsi, thumbs up,7up 8,11,9,8 respectively. Age group 26-35 are 44 re spondent where they like coca cola, Pepsi, thumbs up,7up 11,7,15,2 respectively. We can observe here that the respondents age factor affect importantly in selection of carbonated drinks. As taste is one of factor which influence in the selection of carbonated drinks Chi-Square Tests | Value| df| Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)| Pearson Chi-Square| 27. 016(a)| 24| . 304| Likelihood Ratio| 31. 222| 24| . 147| N of Valid Cases| 200| | | a 18 cells (51. 4%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is . 48 . INTERPRETATION: Since the calculated value 0. 304 is higher than 0. 05, we accept the null hypothesis and conclude saying that the age is interdependent on the selection of carbonated drinks. So, carbonated drinks are popular among the youth. Null hypothesis: HO: Is advertisement a major factor in the selection of the brand of carbonated drinks? COLA * LIKE Cross tabulation| | | | | | | | Count | | | | | | | | | | | | LIKE| | | | | | | Total| | | brand name| taste| easy avail| packaging| price| Effect of brand ambassador| others| | COLA| coca cola| 11| 7| 4| 3| 9| 1| 1| 36| | pepsi| 7| 10| 3| 3| 8| 3| 0| 34| | thumbs up| 10| 11| 9| 4| 13| 5| 0| 52| | 7up| 5| 9| 5| 3| 1| 1| 0| 24| | sprite| 1| 6| 6| 4| 2| 2| 1| 22| | mazza| 3| 4| 4| 2| 2| 1| 0| 16| | fanta| 3| 3| 1| 1| 5| 3| 0| 16| Total| | 40| 50| 32| 20| 40| 16| 2| 200| We can observe here that the respondents advertisement affects importantly in selection of carbonated drinks. As advertisement is one of factor which influence in the selection of carbonated drinks Chi-Square Tests | Value| df| Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)| Pearson Chi-Square| 32. 104(a)| 36| . 654| Likelihood Ratio| 33. 992| 36| . 564| N of Valid Cases| 200| | | a 34 cells (69. 4%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is . 16. INTERPRETATION: Since the calculated value 0. 654 is higher than 0. 5, we accept the null hypothesis and conclude saying that the advertisements are interdependent on the selection of carbonated drinks. So, advertisement affects in the selection of branded carbonated drinks. Null hypothesis: HO: Does occupation has a role in selecting the Carbonated drink? WORK * COLA Cross tabulation| | | | | | | | Count | | | | | | | | | | | | COLA| | | | | | | Total| | | coca cola| pepsi| thumbs up| 7up| sprite| mazza | fanta| | WORK| Professional| 5| 4| 7| 2| 3| 2| 3| 26| | Businessman| 6| 12| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| 18| | Service| 11| 8| 14| 14| 4| 1| 0| 52| Student| 14| 9| 30| 7| 14| 12| 12| 98| | Others| 0| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| 1| 6| Total| | 36| 34| 52| 24| 22| 16| 16| 200| As per respondent, 30 student select thumbs up as their favorite drink , in businessman category nobody likes other drink rather than coke and pepsi. While in other occupation doesn’t have any definite favorite drinks. Chi-Square Tests | Value| df| Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)| Pearson Chi-Square| 73. 241(a)| 24| . 000| Likelihood Ratio| 77. 160| 24| . 000| N of Valid Cases| 200| | | a 22 cells (62. 9%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is . 48. INTERPRETATION: Since the calculated value 0. 000 is lower than 0. 05, we reject the null hypothesis and conclude saying that the occupation are dependent on the selection of carbonated drinks. So, occupation does not affect in the selection of branded carbonated drinks. CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION Findings 1. Maximum number of people surveyed is below 15 years because they are major consumers. 2. Out of 200 people 13%are professionals, 9% are businessman, 26% are serviceman, and 49% are students. 3. Out of 200 respondents, 97% of consumers buy cold drinks and only 3% of them do not buy. 4. 9% respondents prefer coke, 18% prefer Pepsi, 12% 7up, 11 % of them prefer Sprite, 9% Fanta, and 23% prefer Thumbs-up. 5. 25% people purchase cold drinks because of taste, 20% people purchase cold drinks because of brand name, 20% people purchase cold drinks because of packaging, 15% people purchase cold drinks because of price, 11% people purchase cold drinks because of brand ambassador, 8 % people purchase cold drinks because of easy availability & 1% people purchase cold drinks because of any other reason. 6. Out of 200 consumers 98% have seen the advertisement and only 2% have not seen the advertisement of any brands. 7. 3% people remember the advertisement of coke, 23% people remember the advertisement of Pepsi, 1% people remember the advertisement of 7up, 6% people remember the advertisement of sprite, 4% people remember the advertisement of Fanta, and 23% people remember the advertisement of Thumbs-up. 8. 24% people remember the advertisement because of creativity, 25% people remember the advertisement because of brand ambassador, 11% people remember the advertisement because of their idea of delivering the message, 25% people remember the advertisement because of frequency of ads, and 15% people remember the advertisement because of logical reason. Conclusion From the analysis of the data collected and from the experiences we have reached the following conclusions: * COKE is most popular amongst its users mainly because of its TASTE, BRAND NAME. Thus it should focus on good taste so that it can capture the major part of the market. But most of the consumers prefer THUMSUP as their 1st preference, then COKE. * We come to the conclusion that visibility affects the sales of project in a very special way. And in terms of the advertisements lays is lacking behind mostly consumers remember the advertisement because of the frequency of add and brand ambassadors, creativity. After acquiring a new customer, there is lot of importance of its retention also. This can be done only by providing extra flavors and good taste. * In today’s scenario, customer is the king because he has got various choices around him. If you are not capable of providing him the desired result he will definitely switch over to the other provider. Therefore to survive in this cutthroat competition, you need to be the best. Customer is no more loyal in today’s scenario, so you need to be always on your toes. We feel that there is cut-throat competition between COKE,PEPSI,THUMSUP so to be on top of mind of the customers they need to do something outstanding every time. CHAPTER 5:ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Sir/Madam, This questionnaire has been prepared with a view to make a STUDY OF CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS BRANDED CARBONATED DRINKS . The information will be strictly used for educational purpose only by the students of Manipal Institute of Management (Manipal University) . we would be grateful if you could spare some time in filling up this questionnaire. ) NAME : 2) AGE :a)0-15 b) 15-20 c) 21-35 d) 36-45 e) 46-70 3) Gender : M F 4) Occupation : Professional Businessman Service Student Other 5) Do you drink soft drinks: Yes No 6) If yes which soft drink Brand: Coke Pepsi 7) If No why so?†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 8) Which carbonated drink do you prefer most: Coke Pepsi 7Up Mountain Dew Thumbs Up Sprite Fanta 9) Which packa ge do u prefer most: Pet Bottle Glass Bottle 10) About Carbonated drink what do you like the most: Brand name Taste Easy availability Packaging Price Brand ambassador Any other†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 11) What is the importance of taste in a carbonated drink? (Please rate them from 1- 4) 1=>Very Important 2=>Important 3=>Not important 4=>Not at all important 12) Have you seen any advertisements of carbonated drinks: Yes NO 13) Advertisement of which carbonated drinks do you remember the most : Coke Pepsi 7Up Thumbs Up Sprite Mountain dew Fanta 14) What attracted you in the advertisement? (PLEASE RATE THEM from 1-4) Creativity Brand ambassador Idea of delivering the message Frequency of add Logical reason 15) What is your opinion of the brand? Excellent Good Fair Poor 16) What is your monthly consumption? 17) Any suggestions? ____________________________________________________________ __ CHAPTER 6 : BIBILOGRAPHY (i) Research methodology by C. R. Kotari (ii) Websites: www. cocacola. com www. pepsi. com www. wikipedia. com (iii) Doing Quantitative Research in Education with SPSS by Daniel Muijs.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Possible Exam Questions Elizabeth Essay

‘Tudor monarchs experienced more failures than successes in dealing with religion in England in the years 1547 to 1587.’ Assess the validity of this view. Students may refer to some of the following material in support of the claim that religious Policies were successful: †¢ after 1549 there were no rebellions against the religious changes introduced during Edward VI’s reign †¢ Religious changes in Mary’s reign enjoyed popular support in most parts of the country †¢ Over the course of thirty years there was a gradual acceptance of the religious changes introduced by the Elizabethan Settlement †¢ ‘Puritan’ opposition to the Elizabethan Settlement had become weak by 1588. Nevertheless, there are a number of other factors to consider: †¢ Religious changes had helped to bring about rebellion in 1549 †¢ Religious change in Mary’s reign had been resisted by Protestant martyrs †¢ There was continued evidence of Catholic survivalism under Elizabeth, especially in The north, which witnessed a rebellion in 1569 which was largely religious in origin †¢ There was opposition to the Elizabethan Settlement from those who had felt that it had not gone far enough. Furthermore, students may legitimately point out that the powers of enforcement of religious Policy were variable, as they were dependent on the support of local officials who might not always have been completely supportive of the policies themselves. Historiographical approaches are not required to answer this question effectively. However, the effective deployment of perspectives derived from historians such as Duffy, Haigh, Collinson and Lake are likely to show skills of a high order. In conclusion, students may conclude that governments enjoyed mixed fortunes in their attempts to promote religious change. To what extent did royal authority decline in the years 1547 to 1558? Students may refer to the following to support the case that royal authority  was undermined: †¢ The frequency of rebellion, including the contribution of the rebellions of 1549 to the downfall of Somerset †¢ The extent to which royal authority might have been hamstrung by Edward’s minority, in particular through the actions of Somerset †¢ The extent to which both monarchs faced open opposition to their religious policies †¢The extent to which royal authority might have been undermined by Mary’s marriage to Philip of Spain. Nevertheless, there are a number of other factors to consider which suggest that royal authority might not have been undermined: †¢ Religious reforms under Edward VI, whilst undoubtedly unpopular, were pushed through ruthlessly †¢ The legitimate succession was upheld in 1553, despite the machinations of Edward VI and Northumberland †¢ In many respects Mary can be seen to have been a successful ruler †¢ Mary’s legacy to Elizabeth was, in many respects, positive. Furthermore, students may explore some of these issues within a historiographical framework, though this is not required. This might apply especially to recent revisions of the reign of Mary. In conclusion, students should offer evaluations which draw on a balance of arguments for and against the loss of authority by the mid-Tudor monarchs. The rebellions which occurred during the reigns of Edward VI and Mary I were mainly political in origin.’ Assess the validity of this view. Candidates may refer to some of the following material in support of the claim that the rebellions were primarily political: †¢ local political antagonisms seem to have been at the root of the East Anglian rebellions †¢ it is difficult to separate out the western rebels’ religious motives from their political distaste for the regime †¢ Wyatt’s Rebellion seems to have been primarily focused on the desire to prevent Queen Mary from marrying Philip of Spain. Nevertheless, there are a number of other factors to consider: †¢ the western rebels were primarily motivated by their resentment at the scale of the attack on popular religious practices †¢ the demands of the western rebels,  whilst mostly religious, are also couched in a language which seems to indicate a significant level of class antagonism †¢ both the western and East Anglian rebels had significant social and economic motives †¢ it has recently been argued that conservative religious sentiments were present amongst the East Anglian rebels †¢ the overtly political motivation of Wyatt and many of his fellow rebels was reinforced by the popular Protestantism of some of his followers. In conclusion, candidates may differentiate between motivation for the various rebellions.